Aerobic or cardio exercise is a systematic exercise in which energy for muscle movement is produced in the process of glycolysis. The main goal of this exercise is to increase the efficiency and endurance of the heart muscle. At the same time, cardio exercises help to solve other problems.
Who needs a cardio training and why?
A benefits of the exercises for cardio training at home and in the gym is that they:
- strengthen muscles and vascular system, stabilize blood pressure;
- increase the volume of the lungs, improve the work of the respiratory system;
- Burn fat and stimulate metabolism, thereby contributing to weight loss;
- lower the level of bad cholesterol in the blood;
- prevent heart attack, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus;
- develop resistance to stress, give a charge of vivacity;
- increase the endurance of the body and immunity.
Cardiovascular exercises are useful for beginner athletes, since they prepare the cardiovascular system for more intensive and heavy loads. They form the basis for high-speed sports. Exercises that help burn fatty tissue, necessarily include a variety of fitness programs.
One of the most effective means of combating obesity is long (at least 45 minutes) cardio training.
Performing cardiovascular exercises during the warm-up phase or 5-10-minute run on the track before the main training allow the athlete to maintain the cardiovascular system. Especially in the prevention of myocardium in adults. In addition, exercises for burning fat is an important component of training in the preparation for the competition.
How correctly to carry out cardio?
On average, the cardio exercise series takes about 20 to 40 minutes. Begin with 5-10-minute sessions and in a few weeks bring the total duration of the training to half an hour. Later, when the endurance of the body increases, you can work out longer, for example, an hour.
It is advisable to eat 2-3 hours before the 7 minute workout. You can eat 45 minutes after cardio. During the whole exercise you must drink to maintain the water-salt balance.
The complex of exercises for losing weight is best done in the morning, when the metabolic rate is increased. Numerous studies show that the peak of mobilization of the organism in the first half of the day is 9-12 hours. There are arguments in favor of late training. Thus, muscle productivity reaches its maximum in the evening.
At 19 hours, there is the lowest level of cortisol. It is a hormone that destroys muscle fibers and contributes to the accumulation of fat. In addition, for night owls, the evening is the only possible time for training.
Cardio training for burning fat and strengthening muscles has a number of requirements.
- You need to do it 3-5 times a week. The interval between training sessions should not exceed two days.
- Before performing cardio warm up for 5-10 minutes, performing general exercises.
- Stretch to relax the muscles.
- Positive attitude is an indispensable condition for quality training, so you need to choose the movements that you like, listen to music and, if possible work out in the fresh air.
Tip: Sportswear should be comfortable. For the shoe, give preference to light sneakers with good fit.
Movement in the rhythm of the heart
The main rule of cardio training is to constantly monitor the heart rate. By pulse, one can judge both safety and efficiency of loads. Before performing the movements, find out the speed of your heartbeat at rest. To do this, find the veins on the inner side of the wrist. It is easiest to to take your pulse with the fingertips (index and middle) of the free hand. Feeling the heartbeat, note the time and count the number of beats in 15 seconds. Then multiply the result by “4”. In an adult, the normal heart rate varies between 60-100 beats per minute.
Another indicator that should be taken into account is the maximum allowable pulse (heart rate max). To obtain the desired value, from 220 subtract the age of the athlete. So, for a 20-year-old woman, the heart rate is max of 200 beats per minute, for a 35-year-old woman – 185. What is this indicator, and why is it so important?
A high pulse rate is a signal that the heart is working at the limit. If exceeded, a heart attack may occur.
To ensure that aerobic exercise is effective and at the same time safe, the heart rate should be within 60-80% of max. It is noteworthy that losing weight is better to train at a level of 60-70%, and for the development of endurance you can take the bar and higher – 70-80%. Calculate the aerobic corridor according to the formula: Heart rate max × 0.6 (0.7 or 0.8). For example, a woman of 30 years old pulse during a fat burning workout should have 114-133 beats per minute. If the goal of cardio is to increase stamina, the heart rate should be in the range of 133-152 beats / min.
Popular Aerobic Exercises
To understand what cardio is in practice, you can examine the generally available types of such exercises. Walking is one of the ways of human movement and at the same time an aerobic load that burns 300-400 calories per hour. Fitness instructors recommend newcomers to walk at a rapid pace 20-45 minutes three times a week. The pulse rate in this case should be 50-70% of the heart rate max. Walking, as a kind of cardio-loading, is suitable for people suffering from obesity or recovering from trauma.
To intensely burn calories try jogging. The energy consumption per hour is 600 cal. The main load is on the muscles of the thighs and legs, partially involved hands. Running is an excellent exercise for losing weight at home, one of the elements of general physical fitness, a preventative against osteoporosis. For beginner athletes, experts are advised to practice three times a week for about half an hour. The heart rate during the training should be at the level of 65-85% of the heart rate max.
Riding a bicycle gives the same lipolytic effect as running, but less stresses the joints. The energy consumption is 600 calories per hour. Bicycle riding is ideal for older people and people with certain problems of the musculoskeletal system.
For burning fat at home, you can buy an exercise bike. Such a ride not only promotes weight loss, but also helps define the muscles of the thigh (quadriceps). Beginners have to bike preferably 3 times a week for 30-45 minutes, keeping the heart rate within 65-85% of the maximum allowable.
Swimming involves all muscle groups. It is safe for ligaments and joints, and therefore is recommended for children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The energy expenditure during swimming is around 600 calories per hour. For training you need: goggles, swimming suit, bathing cap and a membership to the pool. You need to engage in different techniques. Warm up first with a slow crawl. In the main part alternate freestyle, breaststroke and butterfly. At the end, swim on your back at a slow pace. Beginner swimmers should perform cardio exercises for weight loss three times a week for 45 minutes. The pulse rate is 60-85% of the heart rate max.
Aerobic exercise at home
Many exercises for cardio training are feasible for beginners, because heir implementation does not require detailed instruction of the coach and sports equipment. Suitable cardio exercises at home are running and jumping jacks. You can run on the spot, but always energetically to rhythmic music. Perform the exercise slowly at the beginning of the workout in at the warm-up stage. It can be a classic run, with a high knee lift or with an overlap.
As for jumping jacks, they should be alternated: small and frequent bouncing with deep squats and jumping up. Another effective exercise for losing weight at home is the “pendulum”. The initial position is the stance: back and shoulders are straightened and the stomach is held in. You can put your hands on your waist or put them in front of your chest. Then jump from side to side for a minute, gradually increasing the speed of the movements.